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TL;DR of World War – I

A Short History of the World War – I

  • On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a young Bosnian-Serb student and a member of the Serbian revolutionary group Black Hand, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo, Bosnia.
  • On July 23, 1914, Franz Joseph (the emperor) sent a 10-point ultimatum which included – surrender and ceding to Austro-Hungarian Empire. Serbia did not comply with this. Although there were many other reasons, the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife triggered the war.
  • By November 1914, the following countries or empires were part of the war due to various treaties and alliances.
    • Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, Germany, Ottoman Empire – Axis Power or Central Power
    • Serbia, France, Britain, Russia – The Allied Forces
  • In 1915, Italy, which was part of the Triple Alliance with Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire changed sides and attacked Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • Britain called forces from its colonies, and countries like India, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada had to enter the war.
  • On 7 May 1915, a German U-boat attacked a ship Lusitania (going to the USA from Britain), killing 1153 people onboard, including 128 US citizens. Later, Germany also sent a secret message to Mexico to attack the USA, which the USA intercepted. The USA had more than enough reasons to enter the war.
  • In 1917, after October Revolution, Lenin took charge of Russia and pulled it away from the war.
  • By March 1918, Russia and Germany reached an agreement and peace. But the fight for Germany on the west side continued.
  • Later that year, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire surrendered, and Germany was left alone. People of Germany rose against their emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II, who fled to Holland.
  • On November 11, 1918, Germany surrendered. The first world war thus ended.

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